Posts Tagged ‘Central America’

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Remarks at her Meeting With Central American Foreign Ministers


Hillary Rodham Clinton
Secretary of State
Waldorf Astoria Hotel
New York City
September 27, 2012

So I thank you all very much and I hope that you’ve had some lunch. I’m well aware that running around (inaudible) New York the week of the General Assembly, there’s hardly a moment to breathe, let alone to eat, so I hope you will not be in any way deterred from getting some nourishment.

I want to welcome all of you to our third Central American Citizen Security meeting. I’m pleased so many of our partners are here today to review our progress and discuss the path forward. We established this group because we all have an interest in enhancing stability and security across Central America. For the United States, this is very personal. These are our friends and our neighbors and our partners on so many important issues. We count a lot of our own people with origins from Central America. So we wanted to – and I particularly made it a priority – to do everything we could to deal with crime and violence and help people live safer and more prosperous lives.

Where governments have struggled to meet these challenges on their own, we want to build the partnerships that will allow us to do this better together. And since the Groups of Friends first met last June, we’ve seen real progress. In the first six months of this year, versus the first six months of 2011, homicide rates are down 10 percent in Guatemala, 25 percent in Honduras, and 26 percent in El Salvador. In some communities, we are told that the fear of violence is beginning to fade for the first time in many years.

Now, we have a lot more work to do, because still the rates of violence remain too high, rampant crime threatens to undermine citizens’ faith in their governments, and so we have to keep up the momentum. First, we need to double down on efforts that are making police more responsive and more effective. For instance, the United States has funded model police precinct programs in El Salvador and Guatemala. This program provides training and equipment to get local police more involved in their communities, to build trust between citizens and law enforcement, and to target the zones of impunity where criminals operate.

In these three precincts, homicide rates have declined even more than the national average – 35 percent, 40 percent, 50 percent. And we should expand this proven, successful program and other measures that have brought down crime and built up law enforcement, making it both more professional but also, frankly, more connected, more sensitive to the needs of the people in the communities.

Second, we should build on the success of violence prevention programs that target those who are most vulnerable to being recruited by criminal gangs, namely young people and marginalized populations. USAID is at work in 12 high crime areas in El Salvador partnering with civil society, municipal leaders, and businesses to provide education and vocational training for these at-risk groups. And in these communities, the feedback we are getting from residents is that they feel more confident making reports to local authorities, and crime rates have in fact gone down.

Third, we need to maintain the political will that has driven change from within Central American governments and societies themselves. Since last year, Honduras has passed a law permitting the extradition of drug traffickers, and we thank you. Costa Rica has strengthened its police forces and courts. Guatemala has ramped up its efforts to seize drugs and arrest criminals at the border with Mexico. Now we need to be sure that the new laws are enforced and that the new initiatives are given the resources they need to succeed.

Finally, we hope to keep strengthening partnership and collaboration. Donor countries such as ourselves need to continue to coordinate so we focus resources where they’re needed most without duplicating our efforts. Regional governments need to share effective practices and launch joint efforts, because crime, of course, doesn’t stop at borders, and we have to continue to work together.

For our part, the United States is committed to being a strong partner. Our Central American Regional Security Initiative is designed to help make streets safer, disrupt criminal networks, support the development of strong government institutions, bring services to at-risk communities, and promote greater collaboration among the region’s governments, not only within Central America but with Mexico, with Colombia, and beyond.

This year we are providing $135 million for these efforts, which brings our total in the last four years to nearly half a billion dollars. And we think, based on the evidence, this has been money well spent. We are very proud to be partnering with you, because our partnership is not simply about reducing crime. It is about building safe and stable communities that will allow entire societies to thrive and prosper.

So again, I want to thank all of you for your commitment to this effort. I look forward to hearing from people around this table who are on the front lines doing the hard work. And let me now turn to the Nicaraguan Foreign Minister – Minister Santos, welcome – to please provide an update on the efforts that have been made by Central American governments to reduce crime and violence and to engage the international community in supporting the region’s most pressing security challenges.

Minister Santos.

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Secretary Clinton Welcomes Youth Ambassadors to the United States

Media Note

Office of the Spokesperson
Washington, DC
June 8, 2012

On June 8, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton welcomed a group of Youth Ambassadors from Central America and the Dominican Republic to the United States for a three-week exchange program on civic education, youth leadership, community service, and entrepreneurship. Secretary Clinton congratulated the 21 students on their leadership and encouraged them to continue being agents of positive change in their communities. During their visit to the U.S. Department of State, the group also met with Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs Ann Stock and Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs Roberta S. Jacobson.

The Youth Ambassadors Program of the U.S Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs brings talented high school students to the United States to promote mutual understanding, increase their leadership skills, and prepare participants to make a difference in their home communities. This program allows youth to serve as “ambassadors” of their own country and encourages them to become active and engaged citizens through service.

The 21 students and four educators from the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama spent their first week in Washington, D.C., where they volunteered and completed training sessions focused on building leadership and conflict resolution skills.

Next week, the group will travel to San Antonio, Texas, and Marquette, Michigan, where they will continue to develop their leadership skills and experience U.S. culture through homestays with local families. Their program concludes in Miami, Florida, where the students will present the community service action plans they will implement after returning home.

The Youth Ambassadors Program underscores the Department of State and Secretary Clinton’s priorities of engaging international youth and creating networks of youth leaders across the Western Hemisphere. The United States and Central America have participated in this program since 2009, and the first group of U.S. participants will travel to the Dominican Republic and Panama this July.

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Remarks at the Central American Security Conference (SICA)


Hillary Rodham Clinton
Secretary of State
Westin Camino Real Hotel
Guatemala City, Guatemala
June 22, 2011

SECRETARY CLINTON: Thank you very much, President Colom, and let me also thank Foreign Minister Rodas and Secretary General Aleman for hosting this very important international conference. I think from what we’ve already heard, the speakers have captured the scale of our common challenge and the urgency of our common response.

The turnout today is an expression of shared responsibility and a testament to the shared sense of crisis and an acute and growing concern over the violence and criminality affecting our friends and neighbors in Central America. Everyone knows the statistics, the murder rates surpassing civil war levels, the citizens who rank insecurity as their top concern, the violence that burdens economic development and foreign direct investment, the threats to democracy, the impacts on society’s most vulnerable populations, especially women and children.

But we don’t need to go through the statistics, because many of you around this table are living these brutal facts every single day. And by coming here for this important conference, we’re acknowledging a very basic truth, that no single country can overcome these facts on its own. It will take concerted action from all of us. That is why when President Obama visited Central America in March, he pledged that the United States would do our part through a new partnership that puts the focus where it should be, on the security of citizens.

And today, I am here and privileged to speak about how we intend to move forward with that partnership and make good on the promise of shared responsibility. Shared responsibility is obviously the first step, but it will mean little if it is not matched by a shared strategy, and even a shared strategy will mean little if it is not backed by the will and persistence to implement it by every sector of society and by all the international partners.

The strategy must reflect the transnational nature of the challenge we face. The cartels and criminals are not contained by borders, and so, therefore, our response must not be either. SICA’s declaration points the way forward: Strengthening the rule of law, attacking criminal organizations head-on, rehabilitating those who do fall into criminality while preventing young people from doing that in the first place, rooting out corruption, and ensuring accountable and effective institutions are essential. Building police forces and courts that are well-funded and well-equipped and capable of protecting human rights and earning the trust of the communities they serve is also.

It’s clear that in order to do so the countries represented around here and the extraordinary leaders who are here on behalf of their countries must have the resources they require. Businesses and the rich in every country must pay their fair share of taxes and become full partners in a whole-of-society effort. True security cannot be funded on the backs of the poor. Civil society must be a full partner in defining and implementing long-term solutions. And yesterday, the civil society groups here issued their own declaration, which is as crucial as what the commitments are made by SICA and governments.

And yet even in these tough economic times, as we take on the threat of criminality and violence, we also must continue to invest in education and jobs. That’s the best way to empower citizens to take their own destinies in hand. United States will back you with sustained support for this strategy, and let me add that we do so because we care about the citizens of this region and our sense of obligation to our neighbors, but also because we know that the wave of violence sweeping Central America also threatens our own country. And therefore, we see this not just as an obligation, but as a mutual responsibility.

We know from the work that the United States has supported in Colombia and now in Mexico that good leadership, proactive investments, and committed partnerships can turn the tide. When President Obama visited San Salvador, he said we would start by investing more than $200 million in Central American-led efforts to address deteriorating citizen security. In fact, the U.S. funding for the Central American Citizen Security Partnership will go even further than that. You have identified your priorities, you have set your strategy, and we will respond with almost $300 million this year, backed up by an action plan that is focused on high-impact investments to help you build new capabilities and create the reforms you need from within.

Our investments will support special vetted police units, initiatives like the SICA Regional Crime Observatory to bring technology, data, and intelligence together, support to train judges and prosecutors, a fund to encourage fiscal reform, and a new challenge grants program, starting with $20 million this year to support initiatives to bolster the rule of law. And as always, we will support efforts to protect and empower women and girls who are too often the targets of so much of the violence.

We will also support proven programs to keep young people away from criminal activity. And to that end, I challenge the private sector in the region to join us. In a new program in El Salvador, we have private sector partners who have pledged that for every dollar the United States commits to crime prevention, businesses in El Salvador will invest three dollars. I would welcome the private sector across the region to join in such an innovative approach.

We know the demand for drugs rests largely in my own country. So for the third straight year, President Obama is seeking more than $10 billion to fund demand reduction through education, treatment, and prevention in the United States. At the same time, we are accelerating our law enforcement efforts to root out the U.S. affiliates of transnational criminal organizations and stepping up the targeting of weapons trafficking networks.

Now crucially, United States support is just part of a larger and growing commitment. The assistance that comes from the Group of Friends totals nearly a billion dollars this year. And for the first time, we will coordinate that assistance in a systematic way. We intend to establish an ongoing, effective, high-level mechanism to ensure sustained coordination to make every dollar count by reinforcing each other while avoiding duplication. Today’s conference must not be a one-time effort.

A number of the institutions and countries represented here today have unique roles to play. The IDB has taken a lead. Both it and the World Bank bring crucial expertise and resources. Colombia and Mexico, guided by their own experiences, are providing invaluable leadership and assistance. Central American governments who have successes to share are also supporting their neighbors. Chile, Canada, and our European friends have stepped in with an even greater commitment.

And of course, SICA will be crucial to coordinate this regional strategy. That’s why I’m pleased to announce the United States will seek observer status in SICA. It is another demonstration of the Obama Administration’s commitment to partnership and working closely with regional institutions.

So we do have shared responsibility and now we have to see it in action. But I will underscore that the leadership must come from Central America itself, and not only from governments but also private sectors and civil societies. We will all be your ready partners, but we want and need to follow your lead.

There are models here that point the way. In Guatemala, CICIG has worked with the government and citizens to confront corruption and impunity head on. The Police Reform Commission, under the brave leadership of Helen Mack, has begun a major institutional overhaul. President Obama saw other encouraging examples on his recent visit to El Salvador. I’m impressed by your successes, President Funes, with community policing and your push to pass a special tax to fund citizen security efforts.

There are many other examples from every country, but the important thing is let’s coordinate those, let’s learn from those examples, let’s take what works, put the best practices in the effort to follow and implement the strategy that’s adopted. So the United States and the Group of Friends will be with you, and with the right leadership, cooperation, we will make progress.

As Foreign Minister Jimenez said in her remarks, two decades ago it was Central Americans working closely together on a regional basis who ended civil wars, and it will be again Central Americans working together on a regional basis who will defeat the criminality and violence that renders your citizens insecure. And we will be your partner as you define and lead the way forward.

Thank you very much. (Applause.)

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Onto the tarmac and off to work!  Secretary Clinton wastes no time in getting to the business at hand.  She is in Guatemala leading the U.S. delegation to the International Conference of Support for the Central American Security Strategy.

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Secretary Clinton to Lead the U.S. Delegation to the International Conference of Support for the Central American Security Strategy on June 22

Media Note

Washington, DC
June 20, 2011

Following President Barack Obama’s March 2011 announcement of the internationally-supported Central America Security Partnership during his visit to Central America, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton will lead the U.S. delegation to the SICA International Conference of Support for the Central American Security Strategy on June 22, 2011 in Guatemala City, Guatemala. Secretary Clinton will be accompanied by Assistant Secretary for Western Hemisphere Affairs Arturo Valenzuela and Assistant Secretary for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs William Brownfield. Watch the conference live at http://www.guatemala.gob.gt/.

For updates on Secretary Clinton’s participation, follow @StateDept@WHAAsstSecty@INLBureau and@USAenEspanol. Click here for more information on Secretary Clinton’s travel.

The U.S. delegation will also include representatives from the Departments of State, Justice, Defense, and Homeland Security, the National Security Council and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The International Conference seeks to highlight the grave security challenges that Central America is facing, to urge a more robust joint response from Central American governments, civil society and the private sector, and to galvanize international support for their efforts to reduce the high levels of crime and insecurity in the region.

SICA is the Spanish-language acronym for the Central American Integration System. SICA leadership and the seven Central American states (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama) will present a new Central America Security Strategy to the international community at the conference in an effort to attract greater international attention to the security challenges, and seek enhanced levels of political engagement and support from their regional and international partners.

The strategy includes an action plan and portfolio of regional programs, aimed at addressing key security concerns in Central America, including narcotics and arms trafficking, transnational criminal gangs, border security, reintegration and prevention, and law enforcement training.

The United States continues to support Central American efforts to combat insecurity and violence through the Central America Regional Security Initiative. In this context, the U.S. will follow through on the Central America Citizen Security Partnership announced by President Obama this March by outlining a draft action plan designed to implement the Partnership. This draft plan includes programs in all the priority areas identified in the SICA Action Plan.

Among the states and organizations that will attend and assist the Conference are: Colombia, Canada, Chile, Mexico, Spain, Italy, South Korea, European Union, United Nations (UNDP, UNODC), the Organization of American States (OAS), the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), and the World Bank.

Additional information on this trip and conference was made available via a special briefing today with Arturo Valenzuela Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs  and William R. Brownfield Assistant Secretary, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs.  I am posting below a few Q&As that reflect most succinctly Mme. Secretary’s agenda (allocation – allocation – allocation).

The entire briefing is available here:  Briefing on the Secretary’s Upcoming Trip to Guatemala and Jamaica

QUESTION: It’s a very simple question. What is the Secretary going for specifically? Is there a message, is there a program, is it what you’re talking about – coordinating, pushing for all of those countries to coordinate? What’s our lead?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY BROWNFIELD: Mr. Valenzuela, I defer to you.

ASSISTANT SECRETARY VALENZUELA: She’s been concerned about the situation in Central America for some time. She’s been pushing for greater engagement on the part of the United States since she began to focus on these issues some time ago. This particular meeting in some ways is the end result of a deep set of evaluations internally within the U.S. Government as to what our response could be. But at the same time, I just want to stress again the fact that this is a meeting that the SICA countries are doing with others from the international community. The response has to be an integrated, but also an international, cooperative response. The presence of the Colombian president, Mexican president, the foreign minister of Spain, for example, are extremely important. The European Union is going to be present.

Altogether, when you add up the support that is provided towards Central America by the United States and these other partners, it’s a substantial amount of funding for Central America. The question is: Is the funding being used strategically in the appropriate way? And that’s what we’re going to be addressing in this meeting. This is a meeting that takes a significant amount of commitment on the part of various different players, donors, and turns it into a far more effective strategically created strategy. That’s the purpose, and she’s going to unveil it from the United States and join her counterparts.

MS. FULTON: Okay. I think we have time for just one more question. Andy.

QUESTION: Just a quick follow-up on that issue. So I take it this isn’t really a pledging conference in itself. These pledges of aid are all already out there, that she isn’t going to be going with any new packages of either money or material support for Central America beyond what’s already been pledged. Is that correct?

ASSISTANT SECRETARY VALENZUELA: The various donors have been pledging monies now for some time in different kinds of categories. What we’re trying to do is to readjust the categories. We may be – the Secretary may announce how we’re repackaging some of our own assistance. But you’re right that this is not a donors conference. This is a conference in – where we’re taking substantial amounts of support for Central America and try to convert it into a far more strategic strategy, a strategy that’s being led by the Central Americans, that’s been created by the Central Americans. This is not being imposed by the United States or other donor countries, but we want to be more effective partners in carrying out their expectations, which of course, is also in our fundamental interest. Thanks.

MS. FULTON: Okay. Thank you very much, Assistant Secretaries Valenzuela and Brownfield. We appreciate your time.

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With the news orgs devoting the day to To the Michael Jackson Funeral, it was bloody difficult to find ANY other news. So for those concerned with the hemispheric crisis in Honduras, the meeting today between the Awesome Hillary Rodham Clinton, Secretary of State Spectacular, and Jose Manuel Zelaya, here is the text of her comments.


Remarks at the Top of the Daily Press Briefing

Hillary Rodham Clinton
Secretary of State
Washington, DC
July 7, 2009

QUESTION: That’s a very stylish sling.
SECRETARY CLINTON: Thank you for noticing, Matt. That’s right. See, I’ve got my Secretary of State – (laughter). Oh, goodness.
Well, hello, everyone. I just finished a productive meeting with President Zelaya. We discussed the events of the past nine days and the road ahead. I reiterated to him that the United States supports the restoration of the democratic constitutional order in Honduras. We continue to support regional efforts through the OAS to bring about a peaceful resolution that is consistent with the terms of the Inter-American Democratic Charter.
As President Obama said today, we have taken this position because we respect the universal principle that people should choose their own leaders, whether they are leaders we agree with or not. And I told President Zelaya that we will do everything we can to avoid any further bloodshed, and I conveyed our deep regret over the tragic events that unfolded in the last days.
We call upon all parties to refrain from acts of violence and to seek a peaceful, constitutional, and lasting solution to the serious divisions in Honduras through dialogue. To that end, we have been working with a number of our partners in the hemisphere to create a negotiation, a dialogue that could lead to a peaceful resolution of this situation.
We are supporting the efforts that the OAS has made, but we think there needs to be a specific mediator, and to that end we are supporting President Arias of Costa Rica to serve in this important role. I raised this with President Zelaya, discussed it with him at length. He agreed that President Arias, who not only has a lot of experience going back many years as a mediator – in fact, won the Nobel Peace Prize for the work he did to resolve the conflict in El Salvador – but is the current president of the Central American Association. So he is the natural person to assume this role.
I spoke with President Arias earlier today, discussed it with him. He is willing to serve as a mediator. And we have received word that the de facto caretaker president, Micheletti, will also agree to President Arias serving in this role.
We hope that this process can begin as soon as possible. It was one of the questions that President Zelaya raised with me, what the timing would be. Based on my conversation with President Arias, I think he is willing to begin immediately.
And it is our hope that through this dialogue mechanism, overseen by President Arias, that there can be a restoration of democratic constitutional order, a peaceful resolution of this matter that will enable the Honduran people to see the restoration of democracy and a more peaceful future going forward.
So I’d be happy to take your questions.
QUESTION: Do you believe that – you use this phrase that is so often used here, “the restoration of the constitutional and democratic order.” One, does that mean that President Zelaya should be restored to his position?
Secondly, do you think it makes any sense for him to try to force his way back into the country, as he did over the weekend when the violence occurred?
And then lastly, does he need to compromise a little on this? Does he need to perhaps give up his plans for a referendum on extending the presidential terms?
SECRETARY CLINTON: Now that we have a mediation process that we hope can begin shortly, I don’t want to prejudge what the parties themselves will agree to. There are many different issues that will have to be discussed and resolved. But I think it’s fair to let the parties themselves, with President Arias’ assistance, sort out all of these issues.
We hope at the end of this mediation there will be a return of democratic constitutional order that is agreed to by all concerned. The exact nature of that, the specifics of it, we will leave to the parties themselves, as I think now is appropriate.
I was heartened that President Zelaya agreed with this. I believe it is a better route for him to follow at this time than to attempt to return in the face of the implacable opposition of the de facto regime. And so instead of another confrontation that might result in the loss of life, let’s try the dialogue process and see where that leads, and let’s let the parties determine all the various issues as they should. It’s their responsibility to do that.
QUESTION: Does the mediation effort now mean that you’re going to hold off on making a determination about whether this was, in fact, a coup that statutorily requires you to suspend non-humanitarian aid?
SECRETARY CLINTON: Well, Matt, we have paused in the aid that we think would be affected by the letter of the statute. There is humanitarian aid, and that is a concern for us – the well-being of the people of Honduras. But we’ve made the decision to basically pause on any further aid. We hope that this mediation process will lead to a rapid resolution, and that would be our preference.
QUESTION: And do you expect President Arias to actually go to Honduras?
SECRETARY CLINTON: No, he’s going to conduct it in Costa Rica, and the parties from Honduras, including President Zelaya, will be in Costa Rica for the mediation.
MR. KELLY: Okay, Nick Kralev, Washington Times.
QUESTION: Madame Secretary, what status – what official status does President Zelaya currently have in the United States? What has he been afforded? And what is the status of the ambassador of Honduras to the – to Washington? Does he represent the de facto government or President Zelaya?
SECRETARY CLINTON: Those are some of the specific questions that President Zelaya is discussing as we speak with Assistant Secretary Tom Shannon, with Dan Restrepo from the National Security Council, and others, because we do want to work this out in the most appropriate manner. The question of their ambassador to us and our ambassador to them is one we need to resolve. I was very pleased that President Zelaya and the foreign minister who was with him both commended us for the role that our ambassador is playing in Honduras, not only in providing security for members of President Zelaya’s family, but in being one of the few people who can talk to all sides at this time.
We are obviously going to be guided by the appropriateness of whether to leave our ambassador there going forward. If – President Zelaya believes that he’s playing a useful role, so we do not want to abridge that if it could be value-added to this mediation process.
MR. KELLY: Last question to Ginger Thompson, New York Times.
QUESTION: Madame Secretary, thank you for taking questions. Can you confirm reports that Assistant Secretary Shannon met yesterday, I believe, with Ricardo Maduro, who is representing the delegation that’s backing the de facto government, and can you tell us about the nature of those conversations and whether you all continue to have meetings with that delegation?
SECRETARY CLINTON: Well, I’m not going to comment on that because our goal has been to reach the point where I believe we are now, which is to get the parties talking to each other and not through us or through other third parties. There’s been, as you know, an enormous amount of contact going on across the hemisphere and, literally, around the world. But it has been my view for several days that the most useful role we could play is to convince all that are directly concerned, not only President Zelaya, but also the de facto regime, the OAS, the UN, everyone, that we needed to have a process where the Hondurans themselves sat down and talked to each other. And that is – that’s been my goal, and I believe that we are on the brink of that happening. I’m hoping that it actually occurs soon.
So we have tried through our good offices to get people to this point. And we’re very grateful for the willingness of President Arias to serve in this position, and we’re also appreciative of the efforts of the OAS as well.
QUESTION: Thank you.
QUESTION: Madame Secretary —
QUESTION: One more?
SECRETARY CLINTON: All right, one more. One more.
QUESTION: Would you like to say something about the riots in China and also your trip to India, Madame Secretary?
SECRETARY CLINTON: Well, we are deeply concerned over the reports of deaths and injuries from violence in Western China. We are trying to sort out, as best we can, the facts and circumstances from the region, and we’re calling on all sides to exercise restraint. We know there’s a long history of tension and discontent, but the most immediate matter is to bring the violence to a conclusion.
With respect to India, I’m very much looking forward to my trip next week. We are working hard with our Indian counterparts to create a very deep and broad strategic engagement. And it is my hope that we’ll be able to announce our intentions when I’m in India, and that we will be cooperating and working together across the broadest range of concerns that our two governments have ever engaged on.
I am very hopeful that the relationship between the United States and India, which has improved considerably over the last 15 years, continues on the path that we’re on. India is an emerging global power. The recent election has provided political stability, and the new government is very committed to pursuing a very activist domestic agenda, particularly around poverty and the conditions of people in rural India, as well as its emphasis on development and job creation, but also to look for ways that India can play a role regionally and globally on the economic issues and other matters that confront us.
So I’m very excited. I was thrilled to go to India for the first time as First Lady and to begin a process that has led us to this point with the contributions of many along the way that really demonstrates that the world’s largest democracy and oldest democracy have so much more in common than perhaps was first recognized.
So thank you. Thank you all very much.

PRN: 2009/688

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